PROFESSOR ZAVOS WITH DR. AMNON MAKLER
WHO IS DR. AMNON MAKLER?
Amnon Makler is a world-renowned Israeli Andrologist-Reproductive Specialist who over almost half a century managed to make significant contributions to the field of reproductive medicine. He is recognized as a world-renowned expert in male reproductive medicine and OB/GYN.
In 1978 he invented and introduced the first 10 micron Chamber for rapid sperm analysis used by an upright or inverted microscope and he managed to demonstrate to the World how to perform a complete and accurate spermogram in the efforts to evaluate the male accurately and objectively.
He continued his inventing efforts by introducing further products and technologies and shared his knowledge in many global meetings and conferences and through his numerous publications. Professor Makler is a pioneer and a highly respected Reproductive Specialist and professional all over the World.
DR. Makler, Professor Zavos and Sefi Makler
WHAT'S A MAKLER COUNTING CHAMBER?
The Makler counting chamber is a simple-to-use device for rapid and accurate sperm count, motility and morphology evaluation, from undiluted seminal specimen. The device was introduced in the late 70's by Amnon Makler and has maintained an impeccable quality for a device that allowed the researcher and clinician to generate accurate and repeatable results for semen evaluations during the performance of semen analyses. It is regarded as the "yardstick" for all comparisons made among the various devices in the semenology area for male infertility evaluation.
U N I Q U E A D V A N T A G E S
EASY TO USE: Sperm count performed from undiluted specimen.
FAST RESULTS: The number of spermatozoa counted in any strip of 10 squares of the grid indicates their concentration in millions/ml. No additional factors are necessary for calculation.
OPTIMAL DEPTH: The depth of 10 microns eliminates blurring and allows sperm to move freely. The applied sample is observed in one focal plane.
BUILT-IN GRID: The grid is in the cover glass. No need to insert a grid into the microscope eye piece and remove it when not required.
ECONOMICAL: Reusable - Easily cleaned with a non-bleach disinfectant solution.
SELF CONTROLLED ACCURACY: Observation of color fringes at the four contact points provides a test for accuracy. The cover glass can never be raised by the applied sample.
CALIBRATION UNNECESSARY: Repeated use with complete accuracy without calibration.
SUPERIOR TECHNOLOGY: Manufactured by state-of-the-art precision engineering. Checked individually by laser beam for precision and accuracy.
1. Makler A. The improved 10 mic. chamber for rapid sperm count and motility evaluation. Fertil Steril 33:337-338, 1980
2. Ludwig G. and Frick J. (eds) Spermatology - Atlas and Manual, Springer-Verlog. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York etc. 1990.
3. Anne M. Jequier: Male Infertility, a Guide for the Clinician. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford U.K. 2000 p. 9-58.
4. Makler A. Human Seminology. Chapter 7:115-130, In: Biotechnology of Human Reproduction, Editors: A. Ravelli, I. Tur-Kaspa, JG Holte, M. Massobrio, Parthenon Publising Group, 2003.
MAKLER CHAMBER IN DEPTH
Chamber Description: The Makler Counting Chamber is only 10 microns deep: 1/10th of the depth of ordinary hemocytometers, making it the shallowest of known chambers. Constructed from two pieces of optically flat glass, the upper layer serves as a cover glass, with a 1 sq.mm fine grid in the center subdivided into 100 squares of 0.1 x 0.1 mm each. Spacing is firmly secured by four quartz pins.
Analysis Technique: A small, uncalibrated drop from a well mixed undiluted specimen is placed in the center of the Chamber by means of a simple rod and immediately covered. A microscopic objective of x20 is required.
Motility Evaluation: Non-motile sperm are counted within an area of nine or sixteen squares in the center of the grid. Moving sperms are then counted, and graded if desired. The procedure is repeated in several areas. Percentage of motility and its quality are then calculated.
Sperm Count: A part of the original specimen is transferred to another test tube for immobilization by placing the tube in hot water (50°-60°): a cup with 2/3 boiling water and 1/3 tap water is suggested. A drop of the immobilized specimen is then placed in the Chamber and counting initiated: sperm heads within a ten square area are counted in the same manner as blood cells are counted in a hemocytomer, their number represents their concentration in millions per ml.
In cases of oligospermic semen, sperms in the entire grid area are to be counted, representing their concentration in hundreds of thousands. The Chamber is easily rinsed with water for reuse. Contact surfaces are wiped with special lens paper after washing.
Applied spermatozoa are uniformly distributed and monolayered, and are observed in one focal plane.
Dilution is unnecessary even with concentrated specimens. Analysis is done directly from original specimen in its natural environment.
All spermatozoa acquire friction free, horizontal movement and are always examined under constant conditions.
The specimen can be analyzed quickly as an office procedure while the patient is waiting, and even by an inexperienced person.
Accuracy of analysis is enhanced through the elimination of the various steps required by the usual hemocytometric technique. In addition, the fact that sperm motility is examined each time under identical conditions further increases accuracy. Errors incurred by uncontrolled pressure applied to the cover slip are thus avoided.
The 10 micron depth of the Makler Chamber is ideal for still or movie camera photomicrography, as it approximately matches the field depth of the objective used in semen analysis.
The Chamber is quickly and easily available for reuse. In a busy laboratory a large number of tests per hour can be made by a single technician with minimal technical and material requirements.